Definition: Ground reference Maneuver where a pylon is kept in the same relative position to the wingtip.
Objective: To develop the ability to maneuver the aircraft accurately while dividing ones attention between the flight path and selected points on the ground.
Mechanics: Pitch for airspeed and keep the correct bank in while circling the points at your pivotal altitude.
Pivotal Altitude: The altitude you will fly this maneuver, as you â€œpivotâ€ about the pylons. It is determined by the following formula: GS^2/11.3.
- Determine Pivotal Altitude
- Pick two points 3-5 seconds from each other, perpendicular to the wind.
- Clearing Turns
- Enter from the downwind and make a turn about the first point at the pivotal Altitude.
- If the point moves rearward then you are too fast and too low so you should climb.
- If the point moves ahead of the aircraft then you are too slow and too high, you should descend.
- Keep the point using pitch
- Keep the same distance from the point using bank as you would in a turn bout a point.
- After you complete the turn fly to your next point and repeat the procedure.
Max and Minimums Downwind
- Altitude is highest
- TAS is lowest
- GS is highest
- Bank is steepest
- Distance to the point is least
- Altitude is lowest
- TAS is highest
- Ground Speed is lowest
- Bank is shallowest
- Distance from the point is greatest
- Using rudder to keep the point instead of pitch
- Wrong pivotal altitude
- Not keeping the point
- Enters at pivotal Altitude
- Keeps ball centered
- 30-40 degrees at steepest point
- Hold pivotal Altitude