VOR – Very high Omni-directional ranger-reliable ground based means of electronic navigation which enables a pilot to navigate \ without reference to the ground.
- VHF so line of sight applies (108.0 – 117.95)
- 360 different radials extending from the center each one on a specific degree of heading like the spokes of a wheel
- Radial are close together at the station but far apart as you get far away, at 60 nm they are 1nm apart.
NAV flag means no usable signal being received
- set turned off
- VOR not transmitting
- LOS interfered with
- something wrong with the receiver
VOR Checks – to be Instrument current the VOR must be checked every 30 days.
- VOT’s – test facilities that transmit on 180 (to) or 360 (from)
- VOR Checkpoints – Ground or Airborne based, ground tolerance is +_ 4 Airborne +_ 6 consult A/FD.
OBS – Omni Bearing selector – is a course selector that allows the pilot to select any of the 360 magnetic courses to follow.
CDI – Course deviation Indicator – will tell you which way to fly to intercept a given course. If the heading and OBS are not in general agreement then you will get reverse sensing.
- Fly 10 degrees per dot from selected OBS to get back on course.
To/From Indicator – Tells you whether you are going to or from the station
Teaching a VOR
- How do you call FSS through a VOR?
- Position check using 2 VORS
- Not all VORS have a compass rose around them, hard to see
- VOR tells you where the station is in relation to what you have set in the OBS
NDB – Non-directional Beacon – Ground unit that transmits on AM frequencies
- In the airplane we use an ADF to receive the signal
- The signal is in relation to the aircraft (ie 0 degrees is the nose, 180 the tail, 90 the right wing, and 270 the left wing)
- Can pick up signals from great distances
- will point to the direction of the wind
- Relative bearing – the heading the needle is pointing to – RB = “relative bearing to the nose”
- MH + RB = MB
- Bird Dog
DME – Distance measuring Equipment
- You can obtain slant range to VOR/DME, VORTAC
- Sends out a paired pulse to a ground station, it times the response and displays it in NM.
GPS – Global Positioning System
- Satellite based radio navigation, positioning and time transfer system
- Accuracy within 100 meters
- Not good enough for vertical navigation
- RAIM – Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
- You can not make an approach unless your receiver meets approach RAIM requirements
- Area Navigation is enhanced navigational capability by computing the the aircrafts position, actual track, and ground speed.
- Typical RNAV equipment gives distance, time, bearing, and cross track error.
- Present Rnav includes INS, LORAN, VOR/DME, and GPS.