CFI PTS Overview


  1. Area of Operation (FOI)
    1. Learning Theory –
  1. Learning – a change in behavior as a result of experience
  2. (1-3)
  3. Basis of Learning – all learning comes from perceptions that are based off of the five senses…experience.(perception of experience)
  4. (1-4)

iii.      Perception – bits of information + meaning = perception.

  1. (G-8) (1-4)
  2. Insight – relating of perceptions into meaningful wholes.
  3. (G-10)
  4. Motivation – MOST dominant force for governing the student’s progress.
  5. Defined – condition that exists in the learner when he values the objective of instructional unit and wants it.
  6. Positive – promised rewards of achievement
  7. Negative – less effective, re-proof, criticism, for a fault
  8. (G-11,12) (1-4)
  9. Learning characterized by…
  10. Purposeful – each student is different and has different goals
  11. is a result of experience – comes only thru individual experience
  12. is Multifaceted – verbal, perceptual, conceptual, emotional
  13. is an active process – to learn you must react and respond
  14. (1-3)

vii.      Laws of Learning

  1. Readiness – student will learn best when they are ready
  2. Exercise – reps best remembered.
  3. Effect – learning is enhanced when a good feeling is accompanied
  4. Primacy – things first learned create a strong impression.
  5. Intensity – vivid learning experience teaches more than a dull one.
  6. Recency – things recently leaned are best remembered.
  7. (1-3,4)

viii.      Levels of Learning

  1. Rote – the ability to repeat back something.
  2. Understanding – perceiving and learning what has been taught.
  3. Application – achieving the skill to apply and perform it correctly, minimum satisfactory level.
  4. Correlation – associating what has been learned with other tins previously learned.
  5. (1-5)
  6. Domains
  7. Cognitive – knowledge
  8. Affective – attitudes beliefs
  9. Psychomotor – physical skill
  10. (G-14)
  11. Learning Physical Skills
  12. Perceptions change as the skill becomes easier.
  13. Desire to learn – motivation
  14. A pattern to follow – best prep is a step by step approach.
  15. Perform the skill – student should coordinate between muscles and vis/tactile senses
  16. Knowledge of results – students should be up dated on their progress.
  17. Progress is patterned – rapid improvement followed by a level off.
  18. Duration of lesson – not too long or short
  19. Evaluation vs Critique – in beginning, practical suggestions are more valuable than grades.
  20. Application of skill – student must use what is learned to the point that it becomes ez.
  21. (1-5)
  22. Memory
  23. Help memory
  24. Praise – stims remembering
  25. Recall – aided by association
  26. Intensity – vivid
  27. Good Attitude
  28. Use of all our senses
  29. Exercise
  30. Hurts memory
  31. Disuse – forget what is not used
  32. Interference – something forgotten because another experience overshadows it
  33. Represed – opposite of Law of effect.
  34. (G-15)
  35. Transfer of learning
  36. Positive – habits carried over that are useful and correct for performing new tasks (Building Block)
  37. Negative – habits that hinder the correct performance of that new task.
  38. (G-13)
    1. Human behavior and Effective Communication
  1. Human Needs
  2. Physical
  3. safety
  4. social egoistic
  5. self fulfillment
  6. Defense Mechanisms
  7. Rationalization – make excuses
  8. Flight – run away physically or mentally
  9. Aggression – becomes aggressive, or stops plying all together, irrelevant questions.
  10. Projection – blame others
  11. Compensation – emphasize a good attribute in order to cover for another.
  12. Reaction formation – (who-cares-how-others feel) attitude
  13. Resignation – quit
  14. (1-8)

iii.      Effective communication

  1. Elements
  2. Source – teacher
  3. Symbol – words-pictures
  4. Receiver – student
  5. (1-8)
  6. Barriers
  7. Lack of common experience
  8. Confusion between symbols
  9. Overuse of Abstractions
  10. Interference – something new overshadows something old.
  11. Developing Communication skills
  12. Be a good listener so you can relate – common experience
  13. Take notes
  14. Listen for main ideas
  15. Be ready to listen
    1. The Teaching Process
  1. Preparation – Objective, procedures and facilities used during lesson, Goals to obtain, standards for evaluation.
  2. Presentation –
  3. Description of the skill, desired outcome in a measurable means.
  4. Conditions- framework under which the skill is demonstrated
  5. Criteria – standard used to measure the skill
  6. Types of presentation
  7. Lecture
  8. Demonstration
  9. Guided Question

iii.      Application – Of the material by the student

  1. Evaluation – of performance by the instructor
  2. 1 v 1
  3. Group
  4. Student led
    1. Teaching Methods
  1. Organizing Material
  2. Introduction
  3. Attention getter – get the students attention
  4. Motivation – appeal to the student personally
  5. Appeal to the benis of flying
  6. Overview – outline what is to be learned and make it clear what the objectives are.
  7. Development (body)
  8. Develop the material to obtaint he fore stated goals
  9. Conclusion
  10. Retrace the elements of the lesson.
  11. Common teaching methods
  12. Lecture – used to introduce new material, summery, show relationships between theory and practice.
  13. Guided discussion – lead off questions allow students to share and the instructor to guide them using questions
  14. Types of questions used
  15. Overhead- entire group
  16. Rhetorical – stimulate thought

iii.      Direct – get a response from a specific person

  1. Reverse – Instructor redirects students question to the group
  2. Relay – instructor redirects students question to the group.
  3. Demonstration – we learn by doing
  4. Essential Phases
  5. Explanation
  6. Demonstration

iii.      Student performance

  1. Instructor Supervision
  2. Evaluation
  3. Cooperative or group learning – small groups, continual active participation
  4. CBT – allows the student to progress at their own pace
  5. (O-1-11,14)
    1. Critique and Evaluation
  1. Critique – should give the student something constructive to build on.
  2. Objective- focus on performance nothing else
  3. Flexible – fit in time, technique, and content to the student
  4. Acceptable – students must accept you first.
  5. Comprehensive – cover the majors
  6. Well organized – follow a pattern
  7. Thoughtful – geared toward the student (self esteem and motivation)
  8. Specific – Comments and recommendations should be specific.
  9. Methods
  10. Instructor-student – instructor leads a group discussion
  11. Student-student – student to student
  12. Student led – student to instructor
  13. Small group – class divided into small groups where they critique a specific area
  14. Self critique – self
  15. Written – is more detailed, student can keep the critique to judge progress
  16. Critique should…(in bold above)
  17. In time allotted
  18. Specific
  19. Comprehensive
  20. Consistent
  21. (G-20)(O-1-15,16)
  22. Evaluation
  23. Types of Questions
  24. Oral
  25. Questions to be avoided
  26. Irrelevent, unclear, too general, Puzzle questions, Trick Q’s.
  27. Written
  28. Reliability – consistent results
  29. Validity – measurable

iii.      Usability – easy to understand

  1. Comprehensiveness – sample that being measured
  2. Discrimination – detects small differences.
  3. Responses to student questions
  4. Don’t lie
  5. Use PTS
  6. (G-21)(O1-15, 16)

iii.      Flight Instructor Characteristics

  1. Aviation Instructor responsibilities in…
  2. Providing adequate instruction according to the PTS and students abilities.
  3. Use PTS to set standard of performance
  4. Emphasize the positive
  5. Flight Instructor
  6. Providing adequate instruction according to the PTS and students abilities.
  7. Use PTS to set standard of performance
  8. Emphasize the positive
  9. Professionalism
  10. Explain important personal characteristics (ie. Good judgment and no pride.)
  11. Describe methods of minimizing student frustration.
  12. Ie emphasizing the benis of flight
  13. (O-1-18,19)
  14. Planning Instructional Activity
  15. Develop objectives and practice towards the standards set forth
  16. Use Building Block Theory
  17. Training syllabus
  18. Purpose and characteristics of a lesson plan
  1. Technical Subject Areas
    1. Aero medical Factors
  1. Obtaining a medical certificate – Obtain it before flight instruction begins, visit your local AME (Aviation Medical Examiner.
  2. Medical deficiency – in the event one should,
  3. write for reconsideration to the AME and duplicate it and send it to the Federal Air Surgeon
  4. within 30 days
    1. Medical Factors
  1. Hypoxia – lack of Oxygen to the brain
  2. Cause – high altitude
  3. Symptoms – Euphoria, dizziness
  4. Treatment – use Oxygen, take deep breathes
  5. 12.5 – 14000 – 30 min
  6. 14.0 – all the time Crew
  7. 15.0 – all persons all the time
  8. Night – 5.0 (suggested)
  9. Hyperventilation – lack pf CO2
  10. Cause – Stress
  11. Symptoms –rapid breathing, dizzy, tingly, blurred vision
  12. Treatment – take deep breathes, slow the breathing rate

iii.      Middle Ear Pain – Outside P greater than inside causes the eardrum to bulge inward.

  1. Cause Unequal P, to fast a descent, decompression?
  2. Symptoms – severe pain in the ear
  3. Treatment – Introduce air P into the inner ear via the Eustachian tube by closing nose and blowing.
  4. Motion Sickness – car sick, air sick,
  5. Cause – due to continued stimulation of the inner ear (balance)
  6. Symptoms – sick to the stomach, want to throw up.
  7. Treatment –
  8. give them a distant point to focus on
  9. give them something to do.
  10. Relief Band
  11. Alcoho            l – Depressant, altitude compounds its effects
  12. Cause – drinking
  13. Symptoms –  hangovers
  14. Treatment – don’t drink
  15. 8 hrs bottle to throttle
  16. Carbon Monoxide
  17. Cause – exhaust gas
  18. Symptoms – headache, dizziness, drowsy
  19. Treatment – turn off the heater

vii.      Scuba Diving

  1. Cause – nitrogen in the blood
  2. Symptoms – The bends
  3. Treatment – wait to fly
  4. 12 hours if not a controlled Ascent and below 8000 feet
  5. 24 hours if controlled ascent or flying higher than 8000 feet.

viii.      Fatigue/Stress

  1. Dehydration
  2. (0-3-3,4)
    1. Visual scanning
  1. Physical Condition, Im Physically and mentally SAFE…?
  2. I – Illness
  3. M – Medication
  4. S – stress
  5. A – Alcohol
  6. F – fatigue
  7. E – emotionally
  8. Degradation of Sight
  9. Visibility – smoke, haze, dust, or rain…
  10. Windshield condition – buggy
  11. Bright Illumination – reflects off clouds, snow, and desert terrain.
  12. Dim illumination – aeronautical charts – red at night
  13. Dark adaptation – rods take 30 min to fully adjust, cones only 10.

iii.      Optical Illusions

  1. Runway Width
  2. Narrow – think you are high
  3. Up sloping – think you re high
  4. Wide – think you are low
  5. Down sloping – think you are low
  6. Featureless terrain – think you are high.
  7. Vestibular and visual illusions
  8. “leans” – abrupt rollout after a gradual turn in which makes you think you are turning for the 1st time.
  9. Proper visual scanning
  10. Day – 10 degrees for 1 sec each on a spot let your cones do the work
  11. Night – slowly scan the area let your rods work (30 min in dark room before flight) (oxygen if above 5k ft)
  12. Time – 4:1, 4 seconds outside for every second inside.

vii.      See and Avoid always maintain vigilance IFR or VFR

  1. Faster the a/c the more likely you are to hit something
  2. When you are around an airport you have the highest chance of collision
  3. (O-3-4,6)
    1. Principals of Flight
  1. 4 forces
  2. Lift – Force created by the airfoil that acts upward thru the CP
  3. Newton
  4. Bernoulli
  5. Gravity – weight of the a/c acting to the center of the earth
  6. Thrust -Forward acting force created by the prop pushing air
  7. Drag -backward acting force created by the A/c and lift.
  8. Wing
  9. Airfoil – any surface designed to create lift inflight
  10. AOA – Chord line and relative wind
  11. Angle of incidence – Chord line and longitudinal Axis
  12. Chamber – curve of the wing
  13. Chord Line – line from the trailing edge of the a/c to the LE
  14. Wing platform – shape of the wing from above
  15. (O-3-7)

iii.      Flight Attitudes

  1. Turns –
  2. Up aileron = drag
  3. Down aileron = lift (where there is lift there is drag)-Adverse Aileron Yaw, therefore rudder
  4. = bank in the direction of drag (diff braking)
  5. Straight and Level –
  6. Forces must be in balance
  7. Nose up a little, vector quantities
  8. Slow flight
  9. Wing not producing as much lift
  10. Nose high so the prop is producing more vertical vector force
  11. Stability – The ability of an object to return to its original state after being disturbed.
  12. Dynamic
  13. Positive
  14. Neutral
  15. Negative
  16. Static
  17. Positive
  18. Neutral
  19. Negative
  20. Longitudinal – prop to tail control of effectiveness – ailerons
  21. Lateral – wing to wing control of effectiveness – elevators
  22. Also downwash from wings on the horizontal stabilizer, at a certain speed this will be just enough.
  23. Vertical – up and down control of effectiveness – rudder
  24. Torque Effect
  25. Torque of propeller – the right motion of the Prop and engine rolls the ac to the left
  26. Gyroscopic effect of the propeller –
  27. Corkscrew effect – prop wash hit the vertical stabilizer and causes a yaw to the left
  28. Asymmetrical loading – at high AOA the bite of the Prop is more pronounced on the downward swing creating a pull to the left.
  29. Load factors
  30. At slow speeds the A/c will stall before getting into a structurally critical position
  31. At high speeds the Aircraft may suddenly find itself beyond safe limits.
  32. CG – aft but still in limits – faster cruise speed, slower stall, may rotate early, harder to recover from a stall.
  33. CG – fore but still in limits – slower cruise speed, faster stall,  harder to flare-rotate, ez stall recovery

vii.      Wing tip Vortices

  1. Land after
  2. Takeoff before
  3. stay clear of the downwind
  4. most pronounced at slow clean configuration
    1. Airplane flight Controls
  1. Primary flight Controls –
  2. elevators for the lateral axis
  3. ailerons for the longitudinal axis
  4. Rudder for the vertical axis
  5. Trim Controls
  6. Used to alleviate the pilot from maintaining constant presseure on the controls.  They are located on the ailerons, rudder, and elevators.
  7. Usually work opposite the control surface
  8. ie trim up, tab moves opposite the control surface.

iii.      Wing Flaps – Moveable on the inboard trailing edge of the wing, useful for slowing down, increasing lift, and approaching the field at a higher decent profile.

  1. Fowler
  2. creates lift at first moving backward
  3. moves back and down
  4. slower stall speed results from the slot it creates.
  5. Split
  6. creates more drag then plain
  7. Plain
  8. extended creates lift and drag
  9. increase in lift and drag – most common
  10. Slotted
  11. produces more lift than drag
  12. lower stall speed
  13. (o-3-13)
  14. Weight and Balance
  15. Datum – Imaginary vertical plane at the fore of the aircraft where all arms are measured from.
  16. Arm – The horizontal distance in Inches from the station chosen to the datum plane.
  17. Basic Operating Weight – A/c + Crew, no payload or fuel.
  18. Center of Gravity – Point where you could hold the entire a/c on a point, also where weight works (gravity)
  19. CG Limits – limits from Datum that CG can be in.
  20. CG Ranger – Range of the limits
  21. Empty Weight – A/c + unusable fuel and oil
  22. Fuel Load – Expendable
  23. Moment – the distance from Datum to the station , times its weight.
  24. Station – local on the a/c that tells you the arm.
  25. Useful Load – Max t/o weight – Empty weight – crew, px, usable fuel and oil,
  26. Overloaded
  27. Higher t/o speed
  28. Longer t/o roll
  29. Reduced angle of climb
  30. Shorter range
  31. Reduced cruise
  32. Higher stall
  33. Longer landing roll
  34. (O-3-15)
    1. Navigation and flight planning
  1. 3 ways to navigate
  2. Pilotage – reference visible landmarks
  3. Dead Reckoning – computing distance, direction, and time from point.
  4. Radio Nav aids – VORs, GPS, ILS
  5.  Terms
  6. Isogonic lines – points of equal magnetic variation
  7. Magnetic Variation – error due to the fact that the True North and Magnetic North are not at the same point.
  8. (O 3-17)
  9. Magnetic Deviation – deflection of the compass due tot the electrical components in the panel
  10. Course – Intended pat of the Aircraft
  11. Heading – the way the aircraft is pointed
  12. Track the actual path of the a/c
  13. Drift Angle – angle between the heading and track

iii.      Compass Heading

  1. TC +/- WCA = TH +/- VAR = MH +/- DEV = CH
  2. Describing the process of Planning a X-C
  3. Preflight Briefing – latest WX, Airport, and Enroute Nav Aid information.
  4. Draw Course Line and mark Checkpoints
  5. Enter checkpoints on the log
  6. Enter Nav Aids on the log
  7. Enter VOR course on the log
  8. Enter ALT
  9. Enter Wind
  10. Measure TC
  11. compute TAS
  12. Compute WCA and Ground Speed
  13. determine variation
  14. determine deviation
  15. Enter CH
  16. Measure Dist on chart
  17. Figure ETE and ETA
  18. Calc fuel burn and usage
  19. Compute weight and balance
  20. Compute t/o and landing balance
  21. Complete a flight planning form
  22. File with FSS
  23. Diverting to an Alternate
  24. consider dist to all ALTs
  25. make MC for ALT divert
  26. WCA
  27. Distance
    1. Night Flight
  1. Take care of your eyes
  2. Preflight
  3. Study Wx esp T/dt spread
  4. Check lights
  5. make sure you have a back up flashlight

iii.      Start-up and Taxi

  1. Clear the area well
  2. Taxi slowly
  3. T/o and Departure
  4. reach  a safe altitude before turning out
  5. Approach to Land
  6. Avoid a long low final
  7. DG aligned
  8. Altimeter set
    1. High Altitude Operation
  1. Altitudes
  2. 12.5 – crew after 30 min
  3. 14.0 – Crew
  4. 15.0 – All PX
  5. Types of Oxygen
  6. Use Aviation Oxygen only
  7. Other Oxygen has too much water which will condence and freeze in the lines at high altitude

iii.      Types of Masks

  1. Continuous Flow
  2. Diluter Demand
    1. FAR
    2. National Airspace
  1. A
  2. B

iii.      C

  1. D
  2. E
  3. G

vii.      Special Use Airspace

  1. Prohibited Area
  2. No Flight
  3. Restricted Area
  4. Must have permission
  5. VFR
  6. IFR –may be cleared around
  7. Invisible Hazards
  8. Military Operation Area
  9. VFR fly thru at own risk
  10. IFR – cleared thru or around
  11. Set up to separate military traffic from IFR
  12. Warning Area
  13. 3 miles outside of National Airspace
  14. Flight plan recommended
  15. Alert Area
  16. Airspace containing a high volume of aerial activity
  17. VFR at own risk
  18. IFR cleared thru or around
  19. Controlled Firing Area (CFA)
  20. Firing Artillery or something to that effect
  21. Spotters
  22. (O 3-29,30)
    1. Navigation Aids and Radar Services
  1. RNAV – category of enhanced Area navigation
  2. VOR – VHF station projects 360 degrees of radials, VORTAC provides DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) measures in slant range.
  3. NDB – Non Directional Beacon – Low to medium radio frequency. Allows you to home to the beacon by the use of an ADF (Automatic Directional Finder)
  4. GPS – Global positioning System – gives you horizontal and with WAAS vertical guidance.
  5. Radar – device that detects objects by the use of sound waves
  6. Primary – radar bounces off an object and returns to the station
  7. Secondary – radar is received and the transponder responds with a specific signal
  8. TRACON – Used for class B and C
  9. ARTCC – used for class A
  10. (O 3-33)
    1. Logbook entries and Certificate Entry
  1. Student Pilot Endorsements
  2. Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge test
  3. Pre-solo flight training
  4. Day
  5. Night
  6. Solo flight (every 90 days)
  7. Solo Takeoffs and landings at another airport less than 25 nm away
  8. Initial solo x-c
  9. solo x-c’s
  10. solo into class B
  11. or an airport within the B territory
  12. Prior to first Solo
  13. logbook endorsement for satisfactory completion of the pre-solo aeronautical exam
  14. “ pre-solo training in make and model
  15. Endorsement on their student pilot certificate for make and model of A/C flown.

iii.      Prior to first Solo X-C

  1. Logbook endorsement for required solo X-C training in make and model
  2. Logbook endorsement for the specific X-C to be flown.
  3. Endorsement on their student pilots certificate for the specific category to be flown
  4. Certify that the X-c planning is complete and reliable.
  5. (O 3-35)
  6. Additional Endorsements that can be given
  7. Flight Review
  8. Instrument Proficiency Check
  9. To act as PIC of a complex A/c, high performance A/c, pressurized A/c, tail wheel, act as PIC if the PIC is not hold appropriate Category and class rating.
  10. Retesting after a failed knowledge or practical test.
  1. Airworthiness Requirements
    1. What Instruments and equipment are required for VFR.
  1. T – tachometer
  2. O – Oil Pressure Gauge

iii.      M – Manifold Pressure Gauge

  1. A – Altimeter
  2. T – Temp gauge for liquid cooled Engines
  3. O – Oil Temp gauge for air cooled engines

vii.      F – Fuel Gauge

viii.      L – Landing Gear light if retractable

  1. A – Airspeed Indicator
  2. A – Anti-collision light system
  3. M – Magnetic compass

xii.      E -ELT

xiii.      S –Seat belts + shoulder harness

    1. VFR NIGHT
  1. F – fuses
  2. L – Landing Light

iii.      A – Anti-collision lights

  1. P – Pulse Lights
  2. S – Source of electrical Energy
  3. (O 3-38)
    1. Inoperative equipment
  1. 14 CFR Part 91 – Inoperative Equipment not essential for Flight
  2. MEL 14 CFR Part 91.213 (a)
  3. May continue to operate
  4. Use of MEL becomes mandatory as if it were the STC for that A/C
  5. Without MEL 14 CFR Part 91.213 (d)
  6. Flight cancelled
  7. Pilot determines if the equipment is required by AD’s or CFR’s
  8. MX found to defer item
  9. Placard INOP
  10. (AC 61-23C)(O 3-39)
  11. Special Flight Permit
  12. If an aircraft doesn’t meet the airworthiness requirements but is able to make a specific flight an FAA inspector may sign someone off for a SFP.
  13. Usually flying it somewhere for MX
  14. Contact FSDO to get one.
  15. (AC 61-23C)(O 3-39)

iii.      AD

  1. Primary medium for FSDO to contact pilots
  2. Compliance needed Immediately
  3. Compliance needed soon
  4. Required MX inspections
  5. Annual or 100 hour (for hire)
  6. Record must be kept in aircraft logbooks
  7. Pitot/Static System check (IFR)
  8. 24 months
  9. Record must be kept in aircraft logbook
  10. Transponder
  11. 24 months
  12. Record must be kept in aircraft logbook
  13. Altimeter (IFR)
  14. 24 months
  15. Record must be kept in aircraft logbook
  16. VOR Check (IFR)
  17. 30 days prior
  18. ELT
  19. 12 months after inspection
  20. (AC 61-23C)(O 3-41)